|The short history of the Subiaco Radio
Society was written by Christine Carter (XYL of Chris VK6FC) as part of
her studies at Murdoch University.
Photographs and other information is being sourced.
A SHORT HISTORY OF THE SUBIACO RADIO SOCIETY
FROM 1923 TO 1970.
ILLUSTRATIONS: (Being sourced)
Figure 1. Exhibition Advertisement for the Subiaco Radio Society. Western Wireless October 10th 1923.
Figure 2. Mr Simmons' Two Valve Set. Western Wireless October 1st 1924.
Figure 3. The Wilfred Gilwhite Memorial Set. Western Wireless September 16th 1925.
Figure 4. QSL Card (VK6LR) Box MMS112 Battye Library.
Figure 5. Bill Sproge tuning his antenna. Photograph from E Pleus.
The Subiaco Radio Society (SRS) began when a few radio enthusiasts met in a backyard shed in 1923. The Society gradually grew in membership and reputation until World War II when it went into recess. After hostilities ceased the Society resumed and was at its height for ten years. Then it went into a sudden and unexpected decline. It went into recess and finally dissolved ten years later. This paper traces the early history, the years of development and consolidation, and finally the reasons for its decline. In the course of discussion I will include a brief outline of the development of radio with emphasis on amateur radio, and mention some of the personalities involved.
Early History of Radio:
In 1873 James Clerk Maxwell published A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism which predicted the existence of electromagnetic waves. He also showed that light consists of electromagnetic waves with extremely short wave lengths.1 From 1885 to 1889 Heinrich Hertz produced electromagnetic waves experimentally and measured their wavelength and velocity. Though much longer than light waves they also traveled in straight lines and could be reflected and refracted. He was able to detect them over distances of a few metres. They were regarded as no more than a scientific curiosity: an interesting phenomenon.2
In 1896 and 1897 Guglielmo Marconi gave the first practical demonstrations of wire-less telegraphy using much longer wavelengths and improved methods of detecting radio waves. In 1909 he conducted an historic experiment in blind faith when he transmitted a signal across the Atlantic from Cornwall to Newfoundland, a distance of nearly two thousand miles. This created a world wide sensation.3
The pattern of radio was established for the next twenty years. Most transmitters were little more than a spark gap and a resonant aerial while receivers were simple crystal sets.4 Further progress was not possible until the invention of the thermionic valve in 1904 by J.A. Fleming and L. DeForest.5 It was many years before valves were widely used.
In 1905 the Australian Wireless Telegraphy Act came into force. This vested Wireless Telegraphy in the Navy but it was later transferred to the Post Master General's Department (PMG).6 In 1908 C.P. Bartholemew, W. H. Hannon of New South Wales, and R. Sutton of Victoria applied for licences to experiment with radio. The Admiralty objected because until then it had monopoly of wireless. A compromise was reached and the Crown Law Department drew up a suitable licence which specified permitted wavelengths and power, and required secrecy of anything received. This form continues almost unchanged to this day. 7
In 1910 the Wireless Institute of New South Wales was formed, followed by the Amateur Wireless Society of Victoria in 1911. These associated to from the Wireless Institute of Australia (WIA) which was later joined by radio societies in other states. The WIA is now the oldest amateur radio society in the world.8 Amateur radio, the two way communication by Morse code around the world, developed rapidly in U.S.A., Britain, Europe and Australia until it was closed down by military authorities during the Great War. The war stimulated great advances in radio technology including the first experimental broadcasts of music and news to German troops in 1917. 9
After the war there was an explosion of interest in every aspect of radio including long distance communication, public broadcasting and amateur radio. Amateurs were in the forefront of these developments. Some experimented with broadcasts of spoken words and music.10 Soon afterward they were banned from doing this as the official broadcasters began transmitting. The amateurs were banished to 'short waves' where it was confidently expected that 'They won't even get out of their own back yards'. Much to everyone's astonishment they demonstrated that long distance, and eventually world wide communication was possible at these wavelengths.11 In the rush to utilize these short waves amateurs were once again severely restricted in the wavelengths they could use.12
It was in this atmosphere that many district and local radio clubs were started for the mutual support and training of amateurs. The first and most successful of these in W.A. was the Subiaco Radio Society.13
Foundation of the Society:
The SRS was started by a few radio enthusiasts who used to gather in the backyard shack of W.R. Phipps, Rupert Street, Subiaco to discuss their hobby and latest developments. Phipps was then an electrical fitter at the Midland Railway Workshops. A public meeting was called at Saint Andrew's Hall, Barker Road, Subiaco in May 1923. Those attending were 'Messrs W.R. Phipps, B. Congdon, H.T. Simmons, McKenzie, Kerr, R. Hedley, L. Thomas, W.A. Gilwhite, J. Jewell, M. Urquhart, H.T. Yeates'.14 Phipps was elected President, Congdon was Secretary and A.E. Stevens was technical adviser.15 Shortly after its foundation, the SRS held a demonstration of 'Music by Wireless and Exhibition of Radio Apparatus' in King's Hall, Subiaco in October 1923. (see figure 1)
Many of the early members became prominent figures in radio in Western Australia. W. Coxon became chief engineer of 6WF, the first broadcasting station in Western Australia, when it was established in 1924.16 W. R. Phipps became the chief engineer of Whitfords Broadcasting Network and H. T. Simmons became the chief engineer of West Australian Broadcasters.17 Simmons was involved with radio most of his life. His first radio assignment was over sixty years ago when at short notice he was asked to join a ship sailing to the United Kingdom as Radio Officer. On board he discovered that the ship's transmitter and receiver had to be completely rebuilt. Following his return to Perth in March 1930 the first commercial broadcast station in Perth, 6ML, opened with a transmitter largely built by Harry Simmons. Other commercial stations 6IX, 6WB and 6MD were added to the network with Simmons as the Chief Engineer. Simmons' commercial work increased his interest in amateur radio and as an early member of the SRS he provided technical expertise and gave his assistance to the group of amateurs in the Society.18 His station VK6KX was an example of what the earnest amateur could do. (see figure 2) He claimed that considerations were important: efficiency and neatness:
The genius that is always evident in such genuine experimenters is drawn upon, and naturally a set results that is almost one hundred percent efficient, and can always be relied upon.19
Mr Bert Congdon VK6BC remained Secretary of the SRS from its inception in May 1923 until May 1948.20 During these twenty five years Mr Congdon made many contributions to the Society. For the first fourteen years fortnightly meetings were held in his 'shack', a converted shed in his backyard.21 His energy and enthusiasm was magnetic and the members acknowledged him in 1940 by saying 'Bert is the Society".22 After 1948 he became less and less active until his death in 1959, only a few months before the Society went into final recess. The Acting Honorary Secretary G. H. Kenny paid a tribute to Bert Congdon in the last annual Secretary's Report, mentioning that on several occasions Bert had paid member's subscriptions out of his own pocket rather than deprive them of the benefits of membership.23 Mr Kenny's tribute ended: "Perhaps it is fitting that he was spared the pain of seeing the organization for which he laboured so long pass into oblivion.24
Early History of the SRS:
The SRS was the first of many suburban clubs formed int eh early 1920's when '... "scratching the cat's whisker" was an art, and ownership of a valve put one on a plane with noted scientists.'25 It also harboured fine qualities of comradeship as illustrated by the Wilfred Gilwhite Memorial Set (see figure 3) ' a very handsome four valve cabinet set' with an engraved silver tablet to perpetuate the memory of a foundation member 'whose actions were always worthy' and who was noted for his 'pleasing personality and cheerful smile ... ever zealous to help on the Society'.26
Before the establishment of the first large scale broadcasting station 6WF the SRS was permitted to broadcast news and music generally on 440 metres with the call sign 6BN. Once regular broadcasting commenced amateurs were no longer permitted to broadcast although some continued to do so for several years. Willy Phipps used to broadcast a weekly program he called '6WP, The Happiness Station.' He even had his own signature record.27 The SRS continued to transmit on short waves with its own station VK6SR until the Society ceased to function.28
By 1926 while most of the other suburban clubs were falling apart the SRS was 'going from strength to strength'.29 It was the optimistic attitude, dedication, good spirits and unselfishness of its members which contributed to the long life of the Society.30
Subiaco society has always been noted for its progressive and virile policy in connection with the amateur radio movement, and whilst at the present time we have the disquieting spectacle all around us of other clubs disintegrating, and in other ways becoming moribund, the Subiaco Club is becoming more energetic, and still maintaining interest amongst its members.31
All sets were home-made unless a member was wealthy enough to import an American set.32 Many parts were exchanged or home-made.33 People helped each other and information was shared. There was an overall feeling of optimism and enthusiasm.34 Ron Hugo's widow Daphne says they took a part-time job selling magazines just to buy the necessary equipment so they didn't have to delve into the housekeeping:
It was a wonderful hobby for a man ... you had the happy thought, you knew where your husband was anyway ... the fact that money wasn't going up in smoke or keeping the brewery going.35
Members came from a wide range of occupations: doctors and accountants, mechanics and apprentices. A few women joined as members after the war.36 Radio growth in the 1920s in Australia was rapid among broadcast listeners and amateurs especially. One of the promoters of this cause was the fortnightly magazine Western Wireless which contained articles on the local clubs as well as featuring the excitement of the first broadcasting station 6WF and overseas radio developments. The Western Wireless subscription was 6/6 for twelve months and aimed 'to assist those about to take up wireless telegraphy, both professionally and as a hobby'.37
In one article:
The passing of 1923: six clubs formed, whilst the traders have formed themselves into a development association for the advancement of the science; and this journal, devoted exclusively to wireless telegraphy has grown with them. As science leaps and bounds amongst our 370,000 citizens amateurs of 1923 will forever be regarded as the pioneers of the movement in this State.38
The SRS had its own monthly magazine The Wave Trap which was included in the subscription and published by the Society for the benefit of the members. Paid advertising from radio suppliers helped defray costs. From the original subscription of 5/- there were only two increases to 10/6 post war and 15/- in 1957.39 The main function of The Wave Trap was to inform the members of the time and dates of meetings and future social events. Articles of technical progress, instruction and encouragement were also written for the magazine. A typically encouraging article was the following in 1951:
Amateurs are ever ready and able to improvise... some of the greatest thinkers were themselves amateurs, interested in some particular scientific subject for the sheer love of it, and with no thought of personal gain ... the main objective of the radio amateur is to get results by his own efforts.40
The aims of the Society were also set out in 1960:
A society having for its objects the association of those interested in the encouragement and scientific development of Radio and all branches of the Electronic Art and for promoting the interest of Broadcast Listeners.41
Articles in The Wave Trap promoted active discussion amongst the members who then carried the debate world wide through amateur radio.42
For the first few years fortnightly meetings were held in various places including church halls, a shop sub-let from the Pigeon Club for a shilling a time, and the old Subiaco Fire Station in Rockeby Road. This was unsuitable because 'anybody who had access to the Fire Station could tinker around with the Society's equipment'.43 They eventually moved to the Secretary's shack where they stayed for the next fourteen years. Before the war meetings were centralized in Subiaco, possibly because transport services were limited. After the war roads improved, car ownership increased and members came from other areas. from 1948 until 1959 monthly meetings were held in Saint Andrew's Church Hall, the Modern Women's Club, basement of Padbury House and the Perth Technical College. (see schedule 1) This became unsuitable in the final year as all the heavy equipment had to be carried up two or more flights of stairs.44
International Radio Regulations prescribe that an amateur who wishes to transmit must first demonstrate an adequate knowledge of the principles of electricity and wireless, the regulations governing amateur radio and the ability to send and receive Morse code. In Australia these requirements are met by the Amateur Operator's Certificate of Proficiency or AOCP which is issued by the Radio Frequency Management Division of the Department of Communications (formerly Post Master General's Dept and then Postal and Telecommunications Dept).45 The candidate is required to pass an examination in three sections and, once he gained the AOCP, he may apply for a station licence. A station call sign is issued with this licence and remains associated with the amateur so long as he continues to renew the licence.46
The SRS was unique in Western Australia in that it ran its own classes to train its unlicensed members to pass the AOCP examination. Instruction was given by suitably qualified members of the Society. At the outbreak of World War II the training school was run by the President, R.W.S. Hugo, with Morse code instruction by J. Morris and J. Rumble. Far from being a time of contraction, the Society enjoyed a rapid growth in membership with many successful AOCP candidates entering the Armed Forces as wireless operators.47 The AOCP classes were always one of the main functions of the Society:
During the Society's existence, many hundreds of members have directly benefited from it. A lot of them have been trained to obtain their AOCP and are now active Licensees. A large number were trained during the early war years to a proficiency which enabled them to enter the Forces as Telegraphists and serve their country in time of need.48
During the mid 1950s rapid technological advances were making it harder to find suitably qualified instructors for the AOCP classes. The instruction was divided among different people: basic electricity and magnetism, radio theory, radio regulations and Morse code.49 However classes dwindled and it became increasingly difficult to find volunteer instructors although they were paid a modest annual fee (40 guineas in 1955).50 Finally approaches were made to the Perth Technical College to run the AOCP classes and these began in 1956.51 Without realizing it the Society had hastened its own decline.
Once the members gained their station licence they were able to join the world-wide fraternity of Amateur Radio. Sitting at home in their own 'shack' or using the Society's equipment at a meeting, members communicated with other amateurs world-wide. J.E. Rumble (VK6RU) has contacted 314 countries, the highest number by an Australian Amateur.52 An unusual or noteworthy contact was confirmed by sending a postcard called a QSL card to the other station. QSL is the Morse code abbreviation for 'I am acknowledging receipt of your message'.53 World-wide communication cannot be achieved without an efficient antenna and figure 5 shows Bill Sproge perched precariously on top of a ladder to adjust and tune his antenna. Another noteworthy achievement was Ron Hugo's communication with South America across the South Pole using only "mouse power" of 50 watts on 10 metres.54
Before World War II new amateurs were put on probation for six months and were only allowed to use Morse code. If the PMG's Department was not satisfied with their performance they remained on probation for another three months. Only then were they allowed to use voice or Wireless Telephony.55 In later years the probationary requirement was dropped and in 1954 a new kind of licence was issued, the Amateur Operators Limited Certificate of Proficiency, (AOLCP) for those who passed Radio Theory and Regulations but not the Morse code examination. This allowed voice communication only on bands above 50MHz, effectively limiting operation to local contacts.56
The War Effort:
At the outbreak of World War II many members trained by the SRS joined the armed forces and served in every radio branch.57 So many of the members enlisted that the Club went into voluntary recess on October 1942 and the funds in hand (£50-0-0) were given to the Commonwealth as an interest free loan.58
Amateurs were required to dismantle their equipment and certain key components were placed in a box sealed by a Commonwealth officer.59 This was to prevent the possibility of unauthorized communications. However, some people continued to operate. These were called 'pirates'. Members of the Society assisted in locating these 'pirates' so they could be apprehended and their equipment confiscated. On one occasion Ron Hugo, the President, reopened his transmitter to engage a 'pirate' in a lengthy conversation on air until the authorities, assisted by members of the Society, were able to locate him. He was apprehended and duly prosecuted. A sequel to this event was a complaint to the authorities by an irate neighbour that Mr Hugo had been operating illegally. After official inquiries Mr Hugo heard no more of the matter and evidently his meddlesome neighbour was satisfied by the authorities because following that she never mentioned it again.60 Soon after this the sealed components were taken into official storage. The club supported its members in the forces by regularly sending gifts and letters.61
When amateur radio resumed after the war it was with anticipation and anxiety that the stations reopened. Mrs Hugo said:
... the band of fellowship, the amateur band... that goes around our world - then and today - it knows no race or religion. After the war they were all looking for one another to see who had survived. Nothing was mentioned but you could hear the urgency in their voices as they called once they got back on the air. It was something I won't forget. the second world war, the experience, the lovely feeling that I had, and I guess a lot of other people too, when they realized that people in Germany and all over the world were once again listening to their friends of thirty years or so.62
Change of Name:
The Society resumed its activities in October 1945 soon after the war ended. There was a sense of relief and optimism, and a fascination with the new technology developed during the war. This resulted in many members joining to study for the AOCP. The Society thrived and expanded its membership state-wide. To mark this growth it decided to incorporate and change its name the "The Radio Society of Western Australia Incorporating the Subiaco Radio Society, 1923'. This took place on 8th May 1948 and was followed by a social meeting to celebrate twenty five years of the SRS.63
Activities and Social Events:
Activities with the Radio Society (RS) included a talk or demonstration of some aspect of radio or electronics, or other topics of interest such as underwater photography. There were also visits to the 6WF transmitter, the South Fremantle Power-house and even to a flour mill. Other activities were purely social for members and visitors, usually other radio clubs, where discussions were followed by a barbecue or supper.64 Technical talks covered a wide variety of topics such as Aerial Measurements, Short Wave Apparatus, Tape Recorders and Amplifiers.65 Also information on the latest developments such as Television Cameras, Single Side Band Transmission and Artificial Satellite Receivers were received with enthusiasm and interest.66
C.W.M. Court, MLA (Later Sir Charles Court, Premier of Western Australia) accepted the office of Patron in July 1956. He gave an annual donation of two guineas and occasionally attended meetings and social activities when parliamentary duties permitted. He frequently represented the Society in dealings with the Government about radio interference due to electrical equipment. He also passed onto the Society complaints from a constituent alleging interference from amateur transmissions and replied when the cause was found to be due to a fault in a street light. He remained an unusually active and helpful Patron until the Society ended.67
The society held regular social events so that the members' wives and children could be involved. Activities included a picnic at Mosman Bay, the Ladies' Night with films and refreshments in the Shell Company's Theatrette, the Radio Ball held in the Government House Ballroom in conjunction with other Radio Societies, a Christmas Dinner held jointly with the WIA, and annual barbecues held at Crawley. The Society's accounts show £2-0-0 for a liquor licence for this event each year. Other social events were held from time to time, such as the 25th anniversary celebrations and the sadder event in 1960 marking the end of the Society's activities.68
Other social activities were more individual. Friendships were made over the air and often the whole family was involved. The children had 'Uncles' they had never met in different parts of the world. They were thrilled to hear a familiar voice and would have their turn on he radio. Sometimes these friendships developed so the families would visit one another.69 one special event for the Hugo family was 'Christmas on the Air'. On Christmas morning they would speak to a family in Mauritius. Their only child Gerti and the four Hugo children would open their presents together:
They would take backwards and forwards... Gerti would tell about her Christmas tree and our children would do likewise... the excitement for the children opening their parcels shone through and they would sing some little Christmas carols... there was a special type of bond.70
The Decline of the Society:
The Society had a steady decline in membership from 1955 to 1960. There were regular references in the President's reports to the low attendance at AOCP classes and monthly meetings, failure of members to renew their subscriptions and lack of volunteers to nominate for executive committee positions.71 For several years there had been the complaint that members joined the Society to receive training for their AOCP only to resign and join the WIA.72 The Society's membership base was further undermined when the WIA altered its constitution to allow the entry of unlicensed associate members.73 The introduction of the AOLCP also undermined the membership and many people left to join the West Australian VHF Group which caters especially for the limited licensee.
One persistent problem during the last five years of the Society's activity was the lack of a permanent meeting place. Rooms were made available at the Perth Technical College but then had to be vacated for demolition. Substitute rooms were unsuitable. Efforts to find better rooms were unsuccessful and attendances continued to fall.74 Also there was less interest in the Society because AOCP classes were now being given by the Perth Technical College.
In July 1959 the President (R.W.S. Hugo) and the Honorary Secretary (G.H. Kenny) resigned for personal reasons. No one would nominate to replace them so the Vice President acted as Chairman and G. Kenny continued as Acting Honorary Secretary. Ron Hugo remained on the Executive Committee. The Society limped along for a further twelve months. In April there was a meeting with the WIA at which the possible amalgamation of the two bodies was discussed but nothing came from this. In an Executive Committee meeting in June 1960 it was the 'general opinion of those present (that no good purpose would be served in carrying on the activities of the Society'.75 Ron Hugo gave notice of a motion at the next Annual General Meeting 'that the Society go into recess'. The Society's fixed assets were disposed of by tender and the motion, put to the twelve members attending the meeting, was carried. The meeting prevailed upon R. Hugo and G. Kenny to accept nomination as President and Honorary Secretary respectively for the duration of the Society's recess.
Over the next two months the Society's activities were concluded by disposal of the remaining assets and printing the last issue of The Wave Trap in September 1960. At the last monthly meeting of the Society on 13 September 1960. Life Membership was conferred on Ron Hugo in recognition of his work for the Society. A social function was held on 11 October 1960 to dispose of the Society's cash balance. Attendance was by invitation only, extended to all financial members of the Society.76
Ten years later on 7 July 1970 an Executive Committee meeting was held to wind up the Society formally. No business had been conducted ant there was no hope of reviving the Society's activities. The records of the Society were to be 'deposited with an appropriate body for sale and permanent custody'. The final activity of the Society was recorded:
The meeting closed at 10.00pm after which refreshments were partaken of and a happy hour was spent reminiscing over the events of the past years of the Society. and reverently calling to mind those stalwarts who carried on the good work of the Society in its heyday. Many of these members are no longer with us, but their memory lingers on.77
Of all these 'stalwarts' two undoubtedly stand above the rest. They are Bert Congdon, Secretary from 1923 to 1948, and Ron Hugo, President from 1938 to 1960.
1. Encyclopedia Britannica, 15th Edition, Vol 15, The University of Chicago, 1943-1973, p. 426.
2. H Hertz, Electric Waves, Doves Publications Inc. 1962, ch. 7 and 8.
3. Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol 15, p. 426.
4. J. Garard (VK5JG), 'The Technical Side of Early Amateur Radio', Amateur Radio, June 1985, p. 14.
5. Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol 15, p. 426.
6. B. R. Barthols (VK3UV), WIA Book, Vol 1, Wireless Institute of Australia, p. 20.
7. M. Hull (VK3ZS), 'The History of Amateur Radio and the Wireless Institute of Australia', Amateur Radio, 1970, p. 23.
8. B.R. Barthols, WIA Book, p. 21.
9. B.R. Barthols, WIA Book, p. 25.
10. See figure 5, QSL Card, VK6LR (ca. 1923).
11. B.R. Barthols, WIA Book, pp. 27-8
12. B.R. Barthols, WIA Book, p. 30.
13. Broadcaster, Wednesday June 28th 1944.
16. Mr F. Taylor (VK6JK), 33 Salvado Road, Floreat Park. Taped interview 3/4/85.
17. Broadcaster, June 28th 1944.
18. WIA Weekly News Broadcast, June 23rd 1985, taped.
19. Western Wireless, October 1st 1944, p. 3.
20. Mr F Taylor, Interview 3/4/85.
21. Mr E Pleus, 72 Joel Tce, East Perth. Taped interview 7/4/85.
22. Broadcaster, Wednesday June 28th 1944.
23. Minute Book of the Radio Society of Western Australia, may 11th 1954 to July 7th 1970. Minutes of the Annual General meeting July 12th 1960.
25. Broadcaster, Wednesday June 28th 1944.
26. Western Wireless, September 16th 1925, p. 5.
27. Mr E. Pleus, Interview 7/4/85.
28. Minute Book. Station licence was renewed annually until 1960.
29. Mrs D. Hugo, widow of the President R.W.S. Hugo. Taped interview 9/4/85.
30. Mr F. Taylor, Interview 3/4/85.
31. Western Wireless, September 16th 1925, p. 5.
32. Mrs D. Hugo, Interview 9/4/85.
33. Mr E. Pleus, Interview 7/4/85.
34. Mr F. Taylor, Interview 3/4/85.
35. Mrs D. Hugo, Interview 9/4/85.
36. Minute Book, Monthly Meetings.
37. Western Wireless, October 24th 1923, p. 3.
38. Western Wireless, December 19th 1923, p. 3.
39. Minute Book, 1957 AGM.
40. Wave Trap, May 1951. The Radio Society of W.A.
41. Wave Trap, September 1960.
42. Mr F. Taylor, Interview 3/4/85.
43. Mr E. Pleus, Interview 7/4/85.
44. Mr F. Taylor, Interview 3/4/85.
45. Amateur Operator's Handbook, Postal and Telecommunications Department (Revised Dec. 1978), p. 3.
47. Wave Trap, December 1940. 'Secretary's and President's Reports for 1940'.
49. Mr E. Pleus, Interview 7/4/85.
50. Minute Book, 1955 AGM.
51. Ibid, 13/12/55.
52. Amateur Radio, Vol.53 no. 7 July 1985, p. 40.
53. Mr F. Taylor, Interview 3/4/85.
54. Daily News, 7th December 1946, p. 10.
55. handbook for the Guidance of Operators of Experimental Wireless Stations, September 1939, Commonwealth of Australia, Postmaster General's Department, p. 6.
56. Minute Book, May 1954.
57. Mr F. Taylor, Interview 3/4/85.
58. Wave Trap, September 1960.
59. Mr E. Pleus, Interview 7/4/85.
60. Mrs D. Hugo, Interview 9/4/85.
61. Mr F. Taylor, Interview 3/4/85.
62. Mrs D. Hugo, Interview 9/4/85.
63. F. Taylor, notes on the SRS supplied to the Battye Library.
64. Minute Book, 1954 - 1970.
65. Secretary's Report to the AGM, Minute Book, July 1957.
66. Secretary's Report to the AGM, Minute Book, July 1958.
67. Minute Book, 1954 - 1970.
69. Mrs D. Hugo, Interview 9/4/85.
71. Minute Book, 1955 - 1960.
72. Mentioned in 'Financial Statement', AGM 12/7/55, Minute Book.
73. Minute Book, 10/5/60.
74. Secretary's Report to the AGM, Minute Book, July 1959.
75. Executive Committee Meeting 6/6/60, Minute Book.
76. Ibid 25/8/60.
77. Ibid 7/7/70.